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TOPO (only topography measurements open for proposal call)

Dedication, scientific applications

The TOPO-TOMO beamline, designed and constructed with the support of the Crystallographic Institute of the University of Freiburg, provides optimal conditions for white-beam Laue topography. A large distance of 30 m between the X-ray source and the sample position as well as the possibility to reduce the effective source size by a pair of slits near the source ensure good transverse coherence, i.e., high angular resolution.

Synchrotron X-ray topography delivers a detailed map of the distribution/structure of lattice defects and strains in crystalline samples (dislocations, micropipes, stacking faults), for example in new materials or microelectronic components. Laue X-ray topography provides:

  • large area sample mapping giving a full image of strain/defect topography of the sample;
  • cross-sectional slice images through the sample (in a manner analogous to TEM);
  • 3D directionality of crystal defects;
  • fine lateral resolution (<1μm) over large areas.


Microtomography and microradiography allows, in a non-destructive manner, to image the internal structure of an object. Microtomography using synchrotron light sources delivers three-dimensional (3D) images of the object with high resolutions down to the submicrometer range, an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and additional contrast modes like phase contrast and holotomography. Typical applications for microtomography and microradiography are:

  • detection of voids and pores in industrial components;
  • imaging tissue and other soft materials in biological and life science;
  • pore formation in metal foams, evolution of particle coarsening in materials science;
  • crack propagation;
  • diffusion processes in woven materials;
  • characterization of fibre structures, porous media, particle agglomerations by microtomography and a subsequent 3D image analysis.


Important! Currently only topography measurements are available for external user groups.

Team TOPO-TOMO
name title function e-mail
Angelica Cecilia Dr. Beamline Scientist IMAGE, Deputy Department Head Imaging angelica ceciliaKxs9∂kit edu

Instrumental Characteristics

Setup
instrumentation TopoTomo


Good coherence conditions and low background is realized by aperture slits in the front end, 25 m away from the sample. A polished Be-window close to the experiment is the only X-ray optical element in the beamline. A set of in-vacuum filters on two independent sliders can be used to change the spectral distribution of the white beam. 


Monochromator
A Double-Multilayer Monochromator DMM with two independent stripes - Si/W and Si/P4B on Si substrate - isinstalled. With monochromatic radiation, quantitative absorption and phase contrast imaging can be exploited, being sensitive to material and atomic numbers and to the local electron density.

Tables
Two motorized tables are installed in the beamline, each one dedicated to a specific class of experiments, so that switching between experimental geometries can be done by simple exchange of the optical tables, which minimizes the required time for set up.

  • The TOPO table is dedicated for experiments with white-beam topography and grating interferometry. Equipped with a positioning tower from miCos it allows mapping of large Si wafers with a diameter of 450 mm by white-beam topography. Furthermore, due to high resolution X-ray slits a large beam up to a horizontal dimension of 80 mm is available, which is especially suitable for section topography.

  • The TOMO table, a fast white-beam tomographic imaging station, allows tomographic scans based on radiographic projection images with spatial resolution up to 2.5 µm (“microscope”) or large field of view (5 mm x 15 mm, limited by the beam size) and moderate spatial resolution in the order of 10 µm (“macroscope”). The setup is equipped with a robot for fast sample exchange eliminating the necessity of entering the experimental hutch for switching between samples.


Detectors

The detectors are an essential part for high resolution X-ray imaging. Therefore, the detector pool at TOPO-TOMO was upgraded to provide a variety of detector systems suitable for different applications. Detector optics are available both for white and monochromatic beam, ranging from total magnification of 1x to 50x. Depending on the experimental requirements, the detector can be chosen for high sensitivity or high speed.

 

Topographic setup mit Wafermapper

Topography table with automatic wafer mapping

 

Tomographic setup with robotic arm

Tomography table with robotic exchange of samples

Available methods

White beam X-ray topography:
Detailed information on defect distributions in crystals can be provided by synchrotron X-ray topography in which an intense, highly collimated beam of X-rays is directed onto a crystalline sample in Laue or Bragg configuration. This non-destructive analysis technique is mainly used for the study of dislocations, planar defects, stacking faults, growth defects or large precipitates. Also very small local defects like nm-scale voids in Si can be imaged as well as long range strain in electronic devices.

High-resolution synchrotron radiography and microtomography
High-resolution and phase contrast radiography are used to investigate micro-structured, multi-component material systems, e.g. to detect delaminations between substrates and glob tops encapsulating wire-bonded devices. Radiographs taken from different projection angles allow to obtain 3D information with a spatial resolution down to the sub-micrometer range by means of computed microtomography. The subsequent application of 3D image analysis methods can be used for the determination of size distributions, orientations or spatial correlations within the tomographic multi-constituent volume images.

Phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer:
Phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer provides determination of the refractive index distribution within a sample even for materials with similar refractive indices. The TOPO-TOMO whitebeam station enables high phase sensitivity and spatial resolution of about 5 μm together with a short exposure time below 1 s. By combining a grating interferometer with computed tomography, the refractive index distribution can be acquired in a 3D volume.

 

Topo Tomo
Topography set-up at Topo-Tomo: Mirror heater for high temperature in-situ experiments
Topographic in situ experiment

(1) Mirror shell and lamp housing

(2) Window for diffracted beam

(3) Translation/ rotation

(4) CCD camera system

(5) Shutter

(6) Vacuum slits

Important! Currently only topography measurements are available for external user groups.

Energy range
6 keV - 40 keV
Energy resolution [ΔE/E]
white light and optional 2 % bandwidth
Source
1.5 T Bending magnet (EC = 6.2 keV), 2 mrad horizontal, 0.5 mrad vertical
Source size
800 µm x 200 µm (FWHM, horizontal x vertical), can be reduced to 5µm x 5µm with slits
Distance source - sample 30 m
Optics Primary slits (in the front end, 5 m from the source),
Secondary slits (26.5 m from the source)
Be window, 0.25 mm thick, polished (27.5 m from source)
Monochromator Double-Multilayer Monochromator (DMM) providing a monochromatic beam with a bandwidth of approx. 2% over an energy range from 6 keV to 40 keV (peak flux 1011 ph/s/mm2 @ 200 mA ring current, between 10 and 20 keV). Adjustable beam offset.
Attenuators Filter stage 1: Al 1mm; Al 0.2 mm; Be 0.6 mm
Filter stage 2: Cu 0.05 mm; Al 0.5 mm; Be 0.2 mm
Flux at sample position
~1x1016 ph/s (10mm x 10mm), white beam
Beam size at sample
up to 80 mm (horizontal) x 6 mm (vertical)
Sample environment
Inert gas, air
Detectors

Photographic films (sub-μm resolution, field of view: approx. 15 x 20 cm²),
Scintillator, coupled via microscope optics to a CCD (high dynamic range, PCO4000, 9 μm pixel size, or FReLoN 2k14bit, 14 μm pixel size) or CMOS (fast imaging, Photron SA-1, 20 μm pixel size), two optics available: macroscope (1.4x, 3.6x) and microscope (3x, 5x, 10x, 25x, 50x).


Typical working parameters are:
25 x 17 mm2 field of view at a pixel size of 6.4 μm (PCO + macroscope M = 1.5x);
10 x 7 mm2 field of view at a pixel size of 2.5 μm (PCO + microscope M = 3x);
1.4 x 0.9 mm2 field of view at a pixel size of 0.35 μm (PCO + microscope M = 25x).

Software
Instrument control: SPEC / PCO CamWare / TANGO camera server
Topography data analysis: Orient-Express
Tomography data visualization: VG Studio Max, Amira, AVS Express, Avizo, CINEMA 4D & Deep Exploration
Image processing: IDL, MatLab, Octave
Image analysis: MAVI, ImageJ,
Tomographic reconstruction: PyHST, Octopus
 

Publikationen
Title Author Source Date Link

T. van de Kamp, P. Vagovic, T. Baumbach, A. Riedel 

Science 333 (2011) 52 

2011

S. Chilingaryan, A. Mirone, A. Hammersley, C. Ferrero, L. Helfen, A. Kopmann, T. dos Santos Rolo, P. Vagovic 

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 58 (2011) 1447-1455 

2011

P.-A. Douissard, A. Cecilia, T. Martin, V. Chevalier, M. Couchaud, T. Baumbach, K. Dupré, M. Kühbacher, A. Rack 

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 17 (2010) 571-583 

2010

P.-A. Douissard, A. Cecilia, X. Rochet, X. Chapel, T. Martin, T. van de Kamp, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, L. Luquot, X. Xiao, J. Meinhardt, A. Rack 

Journal of Instrumentation 7 (2012) doi:10.1088/1748-0221/7/09/P09016 

2012 PDF

T. Weitkamp, D. Haas, D. Wegrzynek, A. Rack 

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 18 (2011) 617-629 

2011

C. Schmitt, A. Rack, O. Betz

J. Exp. Biol. 217, 3095-3107

2014

PDF

A. Cecilia, A. Rack, P.-A. Douissard, T. Martin, T. dos Santos Rolo, P. Vagovic, D. Pelliccia, M. Couchaud, K. Dupré, T. Baumbach 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 633 (2011) S292-S293 

2011

E. Hamann, A. Cecilia, A. Zwerger, A. Fauler, O. Tolbanov, A. Tyazhev, G. Shelkov, H. Graafsma, T. Baumbach, M. Fiederle 

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 425, 062015 

2013 PDF

J. Hassan, A. Henry, P. J. McNally, J. P. Bergman 

Journal of Crystal Growth 312 (2010) 1828-1837 

2010
T. Koenig, E. Hamann, S. Procz, R. Ballabriga, A. Cecilia, M. Zuber, X. Llopart, M. Campbell, A. Fauler, T. Baumbach, M. Fiederle IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 60, 4713-4718 2013 PDF

P. Vrśanský, T. van de Kamp, D. Azar, A. Prokin, L. Vidlička, P. Vagovič 

PLoS ONE 8, e80560 

2013 PDF

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, I. Zanette, Ch. Morawe, A. Vivo Rommeveaux, P. Tafforeau, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler, T. Rack, A. Cecilia, P. Vagovic, E. Harmann, R. Dietsch, H. Riesemeier 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 649 (2011) 123-127 

2011

J. Stopford, D. Allen, O. Aldrian, M. Morshed, J. Wittge, A. N. Danilewsky, P. J. McNally 

Microelectronic Engineering 88 (2011) 64-71 

2011

A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, D. Grigoriev, T. Rack, L. Helfen, T. Baumbach, R. Dietsch, T. Holz, M. Krämer, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler 

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 17 (2010) 496-510 

2010

I. Sötje, F. Neues, M. Epple, W. Ludwig, A. Rack, M. Gordon, R. Boese, H. Tiemann 

Marine Biology 158 (2011) 1149-1161 

2011

J. Bielecki, J. Jarzyna, S. Bożek, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, W.M. Kwiatek 

Radiat. Phys. Chem. 93, 59-66 

2013 PDF

A. Danilewsky, J. Wittge, K. Kiefl, D. Allen, P. McNally, J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, T. Baumbach, B. K. Tanner 

J. Appl. Cryst. 46, 849-855 

2013 PDF
X. Yang, T. Jejkal, H. Pasic, R. Stotzka, A. Streit, J. van Wezel, T. dos Santos Rolo 21st Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP),  DOI 10.1109/PDP.2013.21, 86-93 2013 PDF

C.S. Wong , A. Ivakovic, A. Cowley, N.S. Bennett, A.N. Danilewsky, M. Gonzalez, V. Cherman, B. Vandevelde, I. de Wolf, P.J. McNally

IEEE 64th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) 2014

2014

PDF

L. Horák, J. Matejová, X. Martí, V. Holý, V. Novak, Z. Šobán, S. Mangold, F. Jiménez-Villacorta 

Physical Review B 83 (2011) 245209-1-7 

2011

B. Kallinger, B. Thomas, S. Polster, P. Berwian, J. Friedrich 

Materials Science Forum 645-648 (2010) 299-302 

2010

A. N. Danilewsky, J. Wittge, A. Croell, D. Allen, P. McNally, P. Vagovic, T. dos Santos Rolo, Z. Li, T. Baumbach, E. Gorostegui-Colinas, J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, M. C. Fossati, D. K. Bowen, B. K. Tanner 

Journal of Crystal Growth 318 (2011) 1157-1163 

2011

A. N. Danilewsky, J. Wittge, A. Hess, A. Cröll, D. Allen, P. McNally, P. Vagovic, A. Cecilia, Z. Li, T. Baumbach, E. Gorostegui-Colinas, M. R. Elizalde 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 268 (2010) 399-402 

2010

J. Wittge, A. N. Danilewsky, D. Allen, P. McNally, Z. Li, T. Baumbach, E. Gorostegui-Colinas, J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, D. Jacques, M. C. Fossati, D. K. Bowen, B. K. Tanner 

Journal of Applied Crystallography 43 (2010) 1036-1039 

2010

B. Kallinger, P. Berwian, J. Friedrich, G. Müller, A.-D. Weber, E. Volz, G. Trachta, E. Spiecker, B. Thomas 

Journal of Crystal Growth 349 (2012) 43-49 

2012 PDF

B. Kallinger, S. Polster, P. Berwian, J. Friedrich, A. N. Danilewsky 

J. Appl. Phys. 114, 183507 

2013 PDF

R. M. Montereali, S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, S. Lagomarsino 

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 249 (2010) 012003-1-6 

2010

J. Kenntner, V. Altapova, T. Grund, F. J. Pantenburg, J. Meiser, T. Baumbach, J. Mohr 

AIP Conference Proceedings 1437 (2012) 89-93 

2012 PDF

T. van de Kamp, P. Vagovic, T. Baumbach, A. Riedel 

ANKA Highlights 2010/2011 (2011) 8-9 

2011

A. van der Meijden, F. Langer, R. Boistel, P. Vagovic, M. Heethoff 

Journal of experimental biology 215 (2012) 3411-3418 

2012 PDF

P. Vagovic, D. Korytár, A. Cecilia, E. Hamann, L. Švéda, D. Pelliccia, J. Härtwig, Z. Zápražný, P. Oberta, I. Dolbnya, K. Shawney, U. Fleschig, M. Fiederle, T. Baumbach 

J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 153-159 

2013 PDF

V. Altapova, A. Ershov, T. dos Santos Rolo, E. Reznikova, J. Mohr, Y. L. Pivovarov, V. F. Pichugin, T. Baumbach 

Journal of Surface Investigation. X-Ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques 5 (2012) 394-397 

2012 PDF

T. Koenig, J. Schulze, M. Zuber, K. Rink, J. Butzer, E. Hamann, A. Cecilia, A. Zwerger, A. Fauler, M. Fiederle, U. Oelfke 

Physics in Medicine and Biology 57 (2012) 6743-6759 

2012 PDF
D. Haas, W. Mexner, T. Spangenberg, H. Pasic ICALEPS2013 2013 PDF

F. Bonfigli, A. Cecilia, S. Heidari Bateni, E. Nichelatti, D. Pelliccia, F. Somma, P. Vagovic, M. A. Vincenti, T. Baumbach, R. M. Montereali 

Radiat. Meas. 56, 277-280 

2013 PDF

R. Rehm, M. Masur, J. Schmitz, V. Daumer, J. Niemasz, T. Vandervelde, D. DeMeo, W. Luppold, M. Wauro, A. Wörl, F. Rutz, R. Scheibner, J. Ziegler, M. Walther 

Infrared Physics & Technology 59, 6-11 

2013 PDF
T. van de Kamp, A. Ershov, T. dos Santos Rolo, A. Riedel, T.Baumbach Entomologie heute 25, 147-160 2013 PDF

A. Cecilia, E. Hamann, C. Haas, D. Greiffenberg, A. N. Danilewsky, D. Haenscke, A. Fauler, A. Zwerger, G. Buth, P. Vagovic, T. Baumbach, M. Fiederle 

Journal of Instrumentation 6 (2011) DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/6/10/P10016 

2011

A. Cecilia, V. Jary, M. Nikl, E. Mihokova, D. Hänschke, E. Hamann, P.-A. Douissard, A. Rack, T. Martin, B. Krause, T. Baumbach, M. Fiederle 

Radiat. Meas. DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2013.12.005 

2014 PDF

A. Cecilia, A. Rack, P.-A. Douissard, T. Martin, T. dos Santos Rolo, P. Vagovic, E. Hamann, T. van de Kamp, A. Riedel, M. Fiederle, T. Baumbach 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 648 (2011) S321-S323 

2011

G. L. Bovenkamp, A. Prange, W. Schumacher, K. Ham, A. P. Smith, J. Hormes 

Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4375-4382 

2013 PDF

J. Moosmann, V. Altapova, D. Hänschke, R. Hofmann, T. Baumbach 

AIP Conference Proceedings 1437 (2012) 57-62 

2012 PDF

D. Allen, J. Wittge, A. Zlotos, E. Gorostegui-Colinas, J. Garagorri, P. J. McNally, A. N. Danilewsky, M. R. Elizalde 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 268 (2010) 383-387 

2010

A. Rack, F. Garcia Moreno, C. Schmitt, O. Betz, A. Cecilia, A. Ershov, T. Rack, J. Banhart, S. Zabler 

Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology 18 (2010) 429-441 

2010

S. Heidari Bateni, F. Bonfigli, A. Cecilia, T. Baumbach, D. Pelliccia, F. Somma, M. A. Vincenti, R. M. Montereali 

Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A 720, 109-112 

2013 PDF

R. Dietsch, A. Rack, T. Weitkamp, M. Riotte, T. Rack, T. Holz, M. Krämer, D. Weissbach, Ch. Morawe, F. Siewert, M. Meduna, P. Cloetens, E. Ziegler 

AIP Conference Proceedings 1365 (2011) 77-80 

2011

Iu. Bykova, V. Weinhardt, A. Kashkarova, S. Lebedev, T. Baumbach, V. Pichugin, K. Zaitsev, I.Khlusov

J. Mater. Sci.-Mater. Med. 25, 1843-1852

2014

PDF

B. Tanner, M. C. Fossati, J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, D. Allen, P. J. McNally, D. Jacques, J. Wittge, A. N. Danilewsky 

Applied Physics Letters 101 (2012) 041903-1-4 

2012 PDF

S. Aland, S. Boden, A. Hahn, F. Klingbeil, M. Weismann S. Weller 

International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 73, 344-361 

2013 PDF

A. N. Danilewsky, J. Wittge, A. Hess, A. Cröll, A. Rack, D. Allen, P. McNally, T. dos Santos Rolo, P. Vagovic, T. Baumbach, J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, B. K. Tanner 

Physica Status Solidi A - Applications and Materials Science 208 (2011) 2499-2504 

2011

B. Kallinger, P. Berwian, J. Friedrich, C. Hecht, D. Peters, P. Friedrichs, B. Thomas 

Materials Science Forum 740-742, 899-902 

2013 PDF

A. Riedel, T. dos Santos Rolo, A. Cecilia, T. van de Kamp 

Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 165 (2012) 773-794 

2012 PDF

D. Oriwol, E.-R. Carl, A. N. Danilewsky, L. Sylla, W. Seifert, M. Kittler, H. S. Leipner 

Acta Materialia 61, 6903-6910 

2013 PDF

L. Alaribe, C. Disch, A. Fauler, R. Engels, E. Keller, A. Cecilia, T. dos Santos Rolo, E. Hamann, M. Fiederle 

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 59 (2012) 2193-2195 

2012 PDF

M. Zuber, T. Koenig, E. Hamann, J. Butzer, A. Cecilia, M. Fiederle, U. Oelfke 

Journal of Instrumentation 7 (2012) doi: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/12/C12018 

2012 PDF

B. Kallinger, S. Polster, P. Berwian, J. Friedrich, G. Müller, A. N. Danilewsky, A. Wehrhahn, A.-D. Weber 

Journal of Crystal Growth 314 (2011) 21-29 

2011

D. Allen, J. Wittge, J. Stopford, A. N. Danilewsky, P. McNally 

Journal of Applied Crystallography 44 (2011) 526-531 

2011

J. Wittge, A. N. Danilewsky, D. Allen, P. McNally, Z. J. Li, T. Baumbach, E. Gorostegui-Colinas, J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, D. Jacques, M. C. Fossati, D. K. Bowen, B. K. Tanner 

Powder Diffraction 25 (2010) 99-103 

2010

B. K. Tanner, J. Wittge, P. Vagovic, T. Baumbach, D. Allen, P. J. McNally, R. Bytheway, D. Jacques, M. C. Fossati, D. K. Bowen, J. Garagorri, M. R. Elizalde, A. N. Danilewsky 

Powder Diffraction 28, 95-99 

2013 PDF

V. Altapova, J. Butzer, T. d. S. Rolo, P. Vagovic, A. Cecilia, J. Moosmann, J. Kenntner, J. Mohr, D. Pelliccia, V. F. Pichugin, T. Baumbach 

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 648 (2011) S42-S45 

2011