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WERA Beamline


The WERA beamline at ANKA is a beamline for soft X-ray spectroscopy and microscopy, owned and operated by the Institute for Solid State Physics (IFP), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.

Dedication, Scientific Applications
WERA provides important electron spectroscopies in the photon energy range 100 – 1500 eV and combines them in situ with photoemission microscopy. It facilitates combinatory studies of electronic and magnetic structure which have particular promise for strongly correlated, thin-film, and nanoscale materials.

Available Methods, Obtainable Parameters

Photoemission, angle-resolved photoemission, resonant photoemission (PES, ARPES, ResPES)

  • occupied electronic structure,
  • band character,
  • Fermi surface,
  • element-specific band structure

Near-edge X-ray absorption (NEXAFS):

  • bulk-sensitive fluorescence yield;
  • total and partial electron yield (unoccupied electronic structure; orbital character, occupation, crystal field strength/symmetry, and spin state; element- and site-specific information)

Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM)

  • imaging of chemical and magnetic contrast;
  • microspectroscopy

Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (SXMCD)

  • element-specific spin and orbital magnetic moments

WERA Aufbau


1) Bendable refocusing mirror
2) PEEM chamber
3) Electron energy analyzer
4) Fluorescence detector
5) Chamber for pulsed-laser thin-film deposition


Energy range
100 - 1500 eV
Energy resolution (ΔE/E)
2 · 10-4 typ.; <1 · 10-4 demonstrated at N1s absorption edge
1.5 T dipole (EC = 6.235 keV), 10 mrad horizontal, 3 mrad vertical. 
•Alternative source (once transfer optics is installed): planar undulator, 20 periods, λm=10 cm (“U10”), on loan from NSRRC, Taiwan.
Astigmatic Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair of front-end mirrors. 
Quick selection of curcular and linear polarization by aperture.
Spherical grating monochromator, 3 gratings; movable entrance and exit slits. 
Bendable plane elliptical refocusing mirrors (KB pair) for optimum focus at sample position in all three sequential experimental stations
Sample environment
Ultrahigh vacuum (base pressure 10-11 mbar). PES/NEXAFS chamber: sample temperature 20 – 800 K
Beam size at sample
Dipole source, PEEM chamber: typ. 0.4 mm (hor.) x 0.1 mm (vert.) FWHM
Experimental Setup
PEEM chamber: photoemission electron microscope (<100 nm resolution). 
PES/NEXAFS chamber: electron energy analyzer (energy resolution 2 meV, angle-resolving, 2D detection), monochromatized He lamp; fluorescence detector (4 elements, ultra-low energy); total and partial electron yield detection; LEED
3rd chamber position for SXMCD chamber or user-specific equipment
Journal papers WERA
Title Author Source Date Link

J. B. Yi, N. N. Bao, X. Luo, H. M. Fan, T. Liu, S. Li 

Thin Solid Films 531, 481-486 

2013 PDF 

Y. Li, R. Deng, W. Lin, Y. Tian, H. Peng, J. Yi, B. Yao, T. Wu 

Phys. Rev. B 87, 155151 

2013 PDF 

F. Latteyer, H. Peisert, J. Uihlein, T. Basova, P. Nagel, M. Merz, S. Schuppler, T. Chassé 

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405, 4895-4904 

2013 PDF 

J. Klanke, E. Rentschler, K. Medjanik, D. Kutnyakhov, G. Schönhense, S. Krasnikov, I.V. Shvets, S. Schuppler, P. Nagel, M. Merz, H. J. Elmers 

Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 137202 

2013 PDF 

D. Fuchs, M. Merz, P. Nagel, R. Schneider, S. Schuppler, H. von Löhneysen 

Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 257203-1-5 

2013 PDF 

D. K. Satapathy, M. A. Uribe-Laverde, I. Marozau, V. K. Malik, S. Das, T. Wagner, C. Marcelot, J. Stahn, S. Brück, A. Rühm, S. Macke, T. Tietze, E. Goering, A. Frano, J.-H. Kim, M. Wu, E. Benckiser, B. Keimer, A. Devishvili, B. P. Toperverg, M. Merz, P. Nagel, S. Schuppler, C. Bernhard 

Physical Review Letters 108 (2012) 197201-1-5 

2012 PDF 

M. Merz, F. Eilers, Th. Wolf, P. Nagel, H. v. Löhneysen, S. Schuppler 

Physical Review B 86 (2012) 104503-1-7 

2012 PDF 

K. Medjanik, D. Chercka, P. Nagel, M. Merz, S. Schuppler, M. Baumgarten, K. Müllen, S. A. Nepijko, H.-J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, H. O. Jeschke, R. Valenti 

Journal of the American Chemical Society 134 (2012) 4694-4699 

2012 PDF

M. K. Dalai, P. Pal, B. R. Sekhar, M. Merz, P. Nagel, S. Schuppler, C. Martin 

Physical Review B 85 (2012) 155128-1-5 

2012 PDF

M. Bruns, C. Barth, P. Brüner, S. Engin, T. Grehl, C. Howell, P. Koelsch, P. Mack, P. Nagel, V. Trouillet, D. Wedlich, R. G. White 

Surface and Interface Analysis 44 (2012) 909-913 

2012 PDF

A. A. Shiryaev, A. V. Fisenko, I. I. Vlasov, L. F. Semjonova, P. Nagel, S. Schuppler 

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75 (2011) 3155-3165 


F. Schertz, D. Kutnyakhov, S. Schuppler, P. Nagel, S. A. Nepijko, G. Schönhense 

Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing 102 (2011) 253-258 


P. Pal, M. K. Dalai, B. R. Sekhar, I. Ulfat, M. Merz, P. Nagel, S. Schuppler 

Physica B: Condensed Matter 406 (2011) 3519-3523 


M. Merz, D. Fuchs, A. Assmann, S. Uebe, H. v. Löhneysen, P. Nagel, S. Schuppler 

Physical Review B 84 (2011) 014436-1-9 


A. Chassé, C. Langheinrich, M. Nagel, T. Chassé 

Surface Science 605 (2011) 272-281 


M. B. Casu 

Crystal Growth & Design 11 (2011) 3629-3635 


R. Werner, C. Raisch, A. Ruosi, B. A. Davidson, P. Nagel, M. Merz, S. Schuppler, M. Glaser, J. Fujii, T. Chassé, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle 

Physical Review B 82 (2010) 224509-1-7 


M. Merz, P. Nagel, C. Pinta, A. Samartsev, H. von Löhneysen, M. Wissinger, S. Uebe, A. Assmann, D. Fuchs, S. Schuppler 

Physical Review B 82 (2010) 174416-1-9 


H. Hintz, H. Peisert, U. Aygül, F. Latteyer, I. Biswas, P. Nagel, M. Merz, S. Schuppler, D. Breusov, S. Allard, U. Scherf, T. Chassé 

ChemPhysChem 11 (2010) 269-275